One of our most complex and important organs is the eyes. It is true that the eyes are more complicated than any other organ in the body because they have to catch and focus light. But when it comes to the eyes, the only thing that matters is function, nothing else. It’s like running a factory without a clock. Just because a machine needs a motor doesn’t mean that all the other parts will work properly or even at all.
Structure of the eye. The human eye is part of a group of eyes located in the body known as “spider-type eyes” located in the lower part of the face. Just like a camera lens focuses the reflected light on film, a complex structure in the eye known as the cornea redirects light to a light-sensing membrane called the retina, which has two eyeballs and two sets of extraocular muscles. These muscles enable you to look up, down, and sideways.
The first section of this article covers the central section of the eyeball. The retina lies between the iris and pupil of each eye. The pigment (colored) that makes the white in your eyes is contained in this area. The retina is also connected to the muscles by the optic tract and the brain. The central area of the eyeball is the subject of our central vision.
As an organ of vision, the eyes are part of a system known as the “eye network.” It includes the macula, the center area of the visual cortex, the retina, the optic tract and the brain. Health problems in these areas can affect the ability to perceive visual details. Two major areas that are affected are vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration and vision loss related to systemic diseases.
The second main article addresses the relationship between the eyes and the central nervous system. It is based on research done at the University of Florida. Studies have shown that when an individual slows down their eye movements, both consciously and unconsciously, the nervous system sends signals to the eyes that it is processing visual information.
Research studies have also found that the eyes are controlled by six muscles. The largest group of these muscles is the visual motion system or VMS. This set of muscles include the iris, the sclera, the lentigo, the frontal and parietal eyes, the ethmoid and sphenoid eyes, and the frontal and parietal eyes. Other smaller groups of muscles include the muscle group known as the brain stem, the affixing, the sclera hand, and the extrinsic retinal ganglion. Together, these groups monitor the way in which eyes are moving. Slow eye movements are detected and interpreted by the brain, which then gives a signal to the eyes to move.